Refers to a method that allows a sender to replace a “stuck” or unconfirmed transaction with a new one that uses a higher fee. This is done to make sure a transaction confirms as quickly as possible. The “replacement” transaction uses the same inputs as the original one. This is not considered a double spend, as the receiving address(es) typically remain the same.
To measure a node’s participation in ZooBC, when exchanging information in the Peer to Peer network, nodes acknowledge having received information from another node by sending back a digitally signed receipt. Once a node has collected enough receipts and is its turn to create a block, it can include in the metadata of the block a subset of the receipts it has collected. This can be later used to prove, at consensus level, that the node has in fact participated in the network, thus earning participation score.
A type of digital signature that can be performed by any member of a group (1-of-M). One of the security properties of a ring signature is that it should be computationally infeasible to determine which of the members’ keys was used to produce the signature.
A real-time gross settlement system, currency exchange, and remittance network created by Ripple Labs Inc. Ripple is built upon a distributed open-source protocol and supports tokens representing fiat currency, cryptocurrency, commodities, or other units of value such as frequent flier miles or mobile minutes.
The work a node does to replace the last blocks when it realises to be in a fork of the blockchain as it receives a new chain that’s longer (has higher cumulative difficulty) than its current active chain. Reorganisations happen when a node realises that what it thought was the canonical chain turned out not to be. When this happens, the blocks in the latter part of its chain (i.e. the most recent transactions) are reverted and the transactions in the newer replaced blocks are executed. All reorgs have a “depth,” which is the number of blocks that were replaced, and a “length,” which is the number of new blocks that did the replacing.