An alternative blockchain network that runs similar software, but is not meant for general use by the majority of the users. It is used to test new code and doesn’t transact any real money or value. Allows developers to experiment and learn.
Unlike standard “t-out-of-n” threshold signature, where t of n users should collaborate to decrypt a message, this variant of a ring signature requires t users to cooperate in the signing protocol. Namely, t parties (i1, i2, …, it) can compute a (t, n)-ring signature, σ, on a message, m, on input (m, Si1, Si2, …, Sit, P1, …, Pn).
In addition to the previous scheme, the public key of the signer is revealed (if they issue more than one signatures under the same private key). An e-voting system can be implemented using this protocol.
A transaction is a set of instructions that a blockchain user prepares and signs in a client application. The user then broadcast the transaction to the network. Nodes in the network receive the transaction, execute it, and incorporate it with others into a block.
Refers to the ability of smart contracts or scripts on a Blockchain to perform calculations and enforce complex rules that most general-purpose programmable computers are currently capable of. This means that the programming language should support (or emulate) features such a conditional branching and storing-data-in-memory in order to satisfy Turing’s concept of a complete machine. In the past, not all computers, even those that are programmable (e.g., Casio calculator) are Turing complete. Not all Blockchains have virtual machines that are Turing complete, even if they do support some form of scripting or smart contracts.